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Nanweng river reserve

Geographical Coordinates
51°19’14 N, 125°22’52 E (51º05’07 - 51 º39’24 N, 125 º 07’55 - 125 º 50’05 E)

Geographical Location
Heilongjiang Nanweng River National Nature Reserve is located in the Great Xing an Mountains Area, Songling District, in Northeast China.

Area:  229,523 ha

Altitude:  370—1044 m

Wetland Type
Ramsar classification -  Xf, Tp, M

Overview
As the largest nature reserve located at the highest latitude in China for forest-marsh wetland ecosystems in the cold-temperate zone, the site holds the most concentrated marsh wetlands in the original coniferous forests of the Great Xing’an Mountains. This site consists of permanent freshwater marshes and ponds, freshwater, tree-dominated wetlands and permanent rivers.
Created on September 1, 2011.

PHYSICAL FEATURES
Geomorphologic feature of the site is low mountains and hills. There are about 20 rivers, such as Ergen River and Nanyang River, run through this area and end into the Nen River which come into being the Nenjiang River. It is a cold temperate zone continental climate with an annual mean temperature of about -3ºC. In the site, the winters are long and hard, which sustain for nine months of the year. The extremely highest temperature is 36 °С and the lowest one is -48 °С. The length of winter is for
9 months. Annual rainfall is 500 mm and frostfree period is 90—100 days.

ECOLOGICAL FEATURES
Being located in the transitional area between the temperate and cold zone, this site supports a representative mixture of plants from the Siberian, Inner Mongolian and Changbai floras. The site supports more than 800 plant species including 6 national protection species. There are 216 bird species, 49 mammal species and 19 fish species presenting in this area. This wetland also supports more than 1% of global population of 17 birds.

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA
There are support 56 national protection species. The national level to protect birds including endangered red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis), Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus), black stork (Ciconia nigra), hooded crane (Grus monacha), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Siberian musk deer (Moschus moscchiferus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), moutain hare (Lepus timidus) etc.

HUMAN USE
This wetland is an important water source for over 10 million populations in Nen River Basin, as well ensuring the recharge of 350 million cubic of water for Heilongjiang Zhalong Nature Reserve per year. And it also has high value of tourism. Tourism offers the projects of bird-watching, boating, fishing, mountaineering, sightseeing helicopters and so on. About 30 travel agencies are interesting to develop tourist routes in corporate with reserve.

THREATENING AND DISTURBING FACTORS
Logging and wood harvesting is one of potential threat to destroy the wetland ecology system. And another threat is forest and grassland fire. For example, in 2012, the forest fire disaster was happened by lightning which mobilize more than 6,000 people to suppress the fire.

CONSERVATION MEASURES
The Nature Reserve established in 1999 and raising to National Reserve status in 2003. Conservation measures enacted are prohibitions on illegal fishing and hunting. Several patrol parties were often make an inspection tours in the reserve, especially in the high period of illegal activities such as breeding or winter season of animals. In recently years, the reserve is keeping carry out biodiversity survey such as birds. Since 2014, the reserve has been forbidden commercial cutting trees. And in the winter, they also feed the animals by providing food to them. Weather station, hydrological observation station and ecological monitoring station are establishing in the reserve which is in aim to research and protect this area. They also carried out educational activities for give publicity to the wetland importance and protection knowledge