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Sanjiang reserve

Geographical Coordinates
47°56’ N, 134°20’ E (47°44’40 - 48°8’20 N, 134°36’12 - 134°4’38 E)

Geographical Location
The Sanjiang National Nature Reserve is located in the northeast of HeiLongjiang province, along the border with Russia, in the downstream of the Wusuli River.

Area 164,400 ha

Wetland Type
Ramsar classification -  1, 2, 3, 4, 9, M, N, Tp, Ts, U, W, Xf

Overview
An alluvial floodplain typical of high-altitude wetlands, a mixture of rivers, open bogs, seasonally flooded meadows, and sedge marshes, the largest area of freshwater
wetland in the PRC.
Created on January 11, 2002.

PHYSICAL FEATURES
Sanjiang NNR lies in the Sanjiang Plain. Reserve contains two major rivers: Heilongjiang River and the Wusuli River. 57 rivers and more than 200 lakes/pools distribute in this area. The area has an oceanic climate. Winter is long and cold, Sumer is short and hot. The average annual rainfall is 604 mm and the annual average temperature 2,2 °С

ECOLOGICAL FEATURES
The reserve provides important habitat for a large number of plant and animal species. According to the statistics, there are 43 mammal species, 259 bird species, 8 reptile species, 7 amphibian species, about 500 insect species and 105 fish species in the Reserve. In addition, there are more than 900 species of higher plant such as nationally protected wild species soybean. The site is also an important habitat and breeding area for several commercial fish species and serves as a natural reservoir for the Sanjiang Plain, providing vital flood control as well. Meanwhile, it is an important fishery resource.

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA
The site is an important habitat and stopover for migratory birds. Particularly the site is internationally important for waterbirds, including the endangered Oriental stork (Ciconia boyciana), Chinese merganser (Mergus squamatus) ,whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus) etc. And, more remarkable, the number of geese and ducks may reach up to 100,000 in autumn. There are providing support for 62 national protection fauna species including redcrowned crane (Grus japonensis), white-naped crane (Grus vipio), red deer (Cervus elaphus) etc.

HUMAN USE
The Sanjiang NNR is under strict protection by state. There is a little of human disturbing. About 5,400 people are living in the reserve. The site was conducted the ecology tourism and environment protection education activities in cooperating with Russia Amur River Basin Nature Reserve in 2015. And the project of developing ecology tourism is also supported by Heilongjiang Province Government.

THREATENING AND DISTURBING FACTORS
Agricultural activities and sewage discharge in surrounding region of the site is potential threat to this wetlands. There still have some human impacts including fishing, gathering terrestrial plants, hunting and collecting terrestrial animals, harvesting aquatic resources The site was conducted the ecology tourism and environment protection education activities in cooperating with Russia Amur River Basin Nature Reserve in 2015.

CONSERVATION MEASURES
The reserve was established in 1994 for protecting the habitats from destruction and animals from illegal hunting, and the reserve was raised to National Reserve status in 2000. The management of the reserve has been working together with the governments of surrounding towns and villages since 2003, and a conservation committee has been established. They also established seven management stations to govern the reserve. Reserve has built a total of 140 artificial nest of Oriental stork which based
on only two natural nests since 2013. During 2014—2015, reserve observed seven pairs of Oriental stork breeding there. In addition, the reserve is jointing an international biodiversity survey, animal protecting and monitoring in cooperating with Russia nature reserve in many years