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Momoge reserve

Geographical Coordinates
45°54’32 N, 123°45’56 E (45°42’25 - 46°18’0 N, 123°27’0 - 124°4’33.7 E)

Geographical Location
Momoge National Nature Reserve is located in the northwestern part of Jilin Province, where the boundary of Jilin Zhenlai county and Heilongjiang Province.

 Area : 144,000 ha

Altitude:  51 m - 55 m; mean - 52 m

Wetland Type
Ramsar classification -  1, 3, 6, 9, M, O, Tp, Ts

Overview
Momoge NNR located in the transition zone between deserts and grasslands, supports wetland types that are representative of the biogeographic region, such as low
plain wetlands, rivers, temperate meadow and shallow lakes.
Created on October 16, 2013.

PHYSICAL FEATURES
The Momoge National Nature Reserve is in a temperate continental monsoon climate zone with an average annual temperature of 4,2°C, average temperature of 23.5°C in July, and an annual precipitation of 380—412 mm. There are two seasonal rivers Erlongtao and Huerda when rainy season. During flooding seasons or rainy years, the Nenjiang River usually backflows and the Tao′er River overflows. Thus, surface runoff accumulates and forms a pool swamp wetland. There are about 1,100 pools in
the reserve.

ECOLOGICAL FEATURES
The Momoge National Nature Reserve includes most wetland classification types in the Songnen Plain, such as swamps, lakes, salt marshes, paddy fields, and others. The main plant species in this reserve include Phragmites australis, Calamgrostis angustifolia etc. The site provides important habitat for abundance of flora and fauna species. Approximately 600 spermatophyte species, 296 bird species, 25 mammal species and 52 fish species are present in this reserve. The site plays an important role
in groundwater recharge, flood water storage, and local climate regulation.

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA
Wetland ecosystems, as the main protected areas in the reserve, have unique ecological values and functions, especially for rare birds and waterfowl, such as red-crowned crane, which inhabits the wetlands. Here can be seen over 50 nationally protected bird species, especially for Siberian crane (Grus Leucogeranus). In the
spring of 2012, 97% of the world’s population of the critically endangered Siberian cranes were recorded at the site, and over 100,000 waterbirds were recorded in each year between 2010 and 2012. Other endangered birds in cluding red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis), hooded crane (Grus monacha), great bustard (Otis tarda dybowskii) etc. These habitats provide important refuge for a variety of fish and bird species.

HUMAN USE
The reserve is used for nature and wildlife protection. It is also important in supporting the local fisheries, livestock farming and agriculture. There are about 42 thousand people living near the reserve. Surrounding areas are mainly used for fishing and agriculture. Most of their land is used for rice paddies. Ecological tourism is one of the reserve project plans. Natural ecology system with modern tourism conditions is their feature. Several attractions are open to tourists throughout the year. Research has been conducted in this reserve for many years, including bird biodiversity survey, band endangered birds etc.

THREATENING AND DISTURBING FACTORS
Pollution of the agricultural and forestry effluents produces the major threat to the wetland. And agricultural activities are potential threat which could influence the soil conditions

CONSERVATION MEASURES
The project of Construction the Basic Facilities of the Momoge National Nature Reserve is being conducted to the third stage since 2010, which is aimed at setting up scientific, regulative and sustainable reserve. After the first two stages between 2003 and 2009, the available effect of protection is significant reinforced. The reserve
established six pots among the reserve to monitoring and protecting the wildlife especially endangered cranes. To improve and assurance the habits, the large water diversion project is being done in recently years. About 50 million cubic waters have been diverted into the reserve which restoring the 47,000 ha habits for birds in 2010. And then the reserve diverts 3,000—5,000 cubic water by different ways every year. The reserve also carry outs public awareness activities and environmental protection advertisements.