Dongfanghong wetland reserve
46°18’34 N, 133°44’57 E (46°12’00 - 46°22’27N, 133°34’18 - 133°54’57 E)
Dongfanghong Wetland National Nature Reserve is located in the transition zone between the Wanda Mountains and the Ussuri River along the border with the Russian Federation.
Area : 131,982 ha
Ramsar classification - M, P, Tp, Ts, W, Xf
The reserve is a wetland ecosystem with forests, rivers, lakes, pools. The site is an important breeding and stopover site for several species of waterbirds.
Created on October 16, 2012.
The Dongfanghong wetland reserve river systems belong to the Wusuli River system. There are three rivers that flow through the Dongfanghong NNR: Damu, Xiaomu, and Dumu Rivers. The wetlands obtain their waters and nutrition constituents from these rivers and flooding of the Wusuli River. The area has a warm temperate monsoon climate. The annual average air temperature is 1,4—2,2°C, the lowest temperature is -42°C, and the highest temperature is +36°C. The frost-free period is 135—140 days. Annual rainfall is 566,2 mm, most precipitation concentrated between June and August.
Dongfanghong wetland NNR lies in the Sanjiang Plain, which belongs to the sparse trees wetland grassland types. The area is rich in animal and plant resources. According to the statistics, 849 plant species including 674 seed plant species and 101 bryophyte species. 13 national protection plant species are supported in this reserve, such as Juglans mandshurica, Fraxinus maudshurica, Tilia amurensis, Astragalus membrabceus, Pinus koreansis etc. The site has large area of mixed broadleaf-co nifer forest and deciduous broad leaved forest. And 216 bird species, 68 fish species, 421 insect species, 7 reptile species and 7 amphibian species are found in this reserve. The reserve is important for recharging groundwater, storing water, and regulating river runoff.
There are 43 national protected wildlife species. This floodplain supports rare and globally threatened wildlife such as the critically endangered Baer’s pochard (Aythya baeri) and the endangered Oriental stork (Ciconia boyciana) and Amur tiger (Panthera tigris ssp. altaica). There are other protected species including white-talied sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis), Chinese merganser (Mergus squamatus) etc.
The site and surrounding areas mainly belonging to Dongfanghong National Forest Farm. Ecological tourism is a feature of the reserve. Many researching are conducting in this reserve for many years, including bird biodiversity survey, band birds etc.
Nature Reserve plays an important role in the protection of natural freshwater wetland system, national protected wild animals and plants resources, and their habits. The reserve established in 2001 and raised to national level reserve in 2009. Since 2012, the reserve provided artificial nests for Oriental stork, and they have successfully attracted two pairs of Oriental stork to breeding in artificial nests in 2014. Weather station, hydrological observation station and bird banding station are establishing in the reserve which is in aim to research and protect this area. And many research about endanger species’ habitats, behaviors, population dynamics are carrying out in recently years. The area of this reserve has been extended from 31,516 to 131,982 ha in January, 2015.