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Xingkai lake reserve

Geographical Coordinates
45º 17’ N, 132º 32’ E (45 º 01’ - 45 º 34’ N, 131º58’ -133º07’ E)

Geographical Location
Xinghai Lake National Nature Reserve is located in the southeast part of Heilongjiang Province, 120 km to Jixi City, 25 km away from Mishan City, and at the east and
south neighbor to Russia. Russian reserve “Lake Khanka” borders the reserve.

 Area :222,488 ha

Altitude: 59m—81m

Wetland Type
Ramsar classification -  9, 6, 4, 3, 2, 1, Xp, Xf, W, U, Tp, O

Overview
The reserve is a wetland ecosystem with lakes, forests, marshes and pastures.
Created on January 11, 2002

PHYSICAL FEATURES
Xingkai Lake consists of two lakes. Xingkai basin is an alluvial plain. The northwest region is higher than the southeast, with a 10 meters high sand hill between the two lakes. Xingkai Lake belongs to the Wusuli River system. There are 26 rivers pouring into the Xingkai Lake, which is very important in preventing floods and in filling ground waters. The area has a warm temperate continental monsoon climate. The annual average temperature is 3°С and annual rainfall is 654 mm.

ECOLOGICAL FEATURES
Xingkai Lake reserve has a complex wetland system, including grassland, marshes, lakes, and forests. The site provides important habitat for a large number of plant and animal species. According to the statistics, 691 higher plant species, 238 bird species and 68 fish species are present in this reserve.

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA
The reserve is an important place of habitat of number of endangered wildlife which is protected in China. Here can be seen 59 nationally protected species including birds and mammals. For example, protected birds like redcrowned crane (Grus japonensis), white-naped crane (Grus vipio), Oriental stork (Ciconia boyciana), white-talied sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Chinese egret (Egretta eulophotes). And endangered mammals like red fox (Vulpes vulpes), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and moutain hare (Lepus timidus). Every spring, about 1200 migratory cranes stop over at the site. And total 20,000 birds nest here during breeding season. After much effort,
endangered bird Oriental stork breeding population was increasing from 15 to 90 between 2005 and 2014.

HUMAN USE
The reserve is used for nature protection and for scientific research. Many groups are conducting research in this reserve, including bird biodiversity survey, researching migration and nesting of birds, soil microbes and so on. Since 2007, the reserve cooperates with Khanka Nature Reserve in Russia to monitor water quality and waterfowl across the border. Surrounding areas are used for tourism, fishing, agriculture and animal breeding. Especially the tourism growing fast since the construction of resorts
has been finished. For example, 680 thousand people had visited the reserve in the year 2014. And during the winter season, more and more people go to there to watching snow.

THREATENING AND DISTURBING FACTORS
Because of agricultural over-development, wetland and forests have been destroyed partly. Industry waste water and municipal sewage have affected the rivers and lakes.

CONSERVATION MEASURES
In April of 1986, Heilongjiang Government approved the provincial Xingkai Lake Nature Reserve. In July of 1992, a trans-boundary nature reserve was established with Khanka Nature Reserve of Russia with the help of International Crane Foundation. In March of 1997, the reserve was appointed as a network site of the North East Asia Crane Site Network. The reserve has established a union committee for the protection of the lake with local communities. In 2015, about 1,000 artificial nests were erected for breeding birds. The reserve has established suffer zone, experimental zone and ecological demonstration zone. The plans of purification of waste waters by establishing sewage treatment plants are now in progress. And the project of Construction the ability of Detection and Manager Xinghai Lake Ecological Environment is also being conducted in arm to develop the ability of monitoring ecotope.